Water is a natural resource, but it can be contaminated with bacteria, parasites, and other harmful organisms.
To avoid these hazards, water is purified to ensure it meets standards for human consumption. This includes removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases.
Water that is pumped from its source or directed into pipes or holding tanks goes through a series of steps in order to remove contaminants and make it safe for consumption. This process reduces the concentration of suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, viruses and toxic chemicals that may have accumulated in the water during its natural course.
Typically, this step is done in a water treatment plant and is required by the majority of countries to ensure the quality of the raw (source) water. The process includes screening which removes sticks, leaves and rubbish as well as a range of larger particles that may interfere with subsequent purification steps.
The residual clear water is filtered through a variety of sand, gravel, or charcoal filters which remove dissolved particles, parasites, bacteria, viruses, and toxic chemicals. The next step is disinfection which is accomplished by a variety of chemicals and procedures. The most commonly used method is chlorine which is added to the water in the final stage of the treatment process.
The installation of a water purification plant is an essential step to ensure that the quality of drinking water can be guaranteed and that it complies with government regulations. This process is based on filtration techniques such as osmosis and reverse osmosis, adsorption by powdered activated carbon and UV disinfection.
The first stage of the process involves removing large particles, such as sticks, leaves and rubbish, that might interfere with subsequent steps in the water treatment process. These particles can affect the colour, odour and taste of water.
Once the initial stages of the water purification process have been completed, various analyses are carried out in order to determine the effectiveness of the treatment. These tests include the concentration of organic and inorganic chemicals, microbial pathogens, radioactive materials and suspended and dissolved solids.
A water purification plant needs to be regularly maintained in order to ensure proper functioning and to prevent system damage. Running a water treatment plant without maintenance for a long time can cause sediment trapping, clogged filter beds, damaged cartridges and more.
Keeping track of all maintenance activities and scheduling them for optimal equipment performance can help keep costs down over the life of your water purification plant. It also supports data-driven decision making, such as determining when equipment should be replaced instead of repaired.
The frequency of maintenance is based on the equipment type, location, operating hours, and expected life cycle. Scheduled maintenance includes inspections and tests performed on equipment at regular intervals. It also includes lubrication, vibration tests, and other minor routine maintenance tasks.
Water purification is the process of removing undesired chemical compounds, organic and inorganic materials, and biological contaminants from water. This includes the processes of distillation (the conversion of a liquid into vapour to condense it back into liquid form) and deionization (ion removal through the extraction of dissolved salts).
The operation of a water purification plant is controlled by devices known as programmable logic controllers that track over 1,500 signals or data points for optimized treatment. These PLCs are also networked together to monitor all of the different water treatment plants and to ensure proper operation and maintenance.
The water is pumped from its source into the purification plant where it passes through a chemical dosing chamber and an upflow clarifier before entering a filter gallery. The water is then treated with a series of chemicals, including lime and ferric sulfate to soften it and a primary coagulant such as aluminum sulfate and polymer to coagulate suspended solids.